|Model whole child approach: values cognitive, emotional, physical, and social development.||Emphasis on acquisition of knowledge.|
|Children have choices within the classroom and are given “freedom within limits”:
||Teacher makes most of the decisions in the classroom:
|Teacher uses individual and small group instruction; personalizes instruction to meet individual student needs.||Teacher uses mainly group instruction designed to meet
the needs of the majority of the students.
|Child sets own learning pace.||Teacher sets instruction pace for the group.|
|Mixed age grouping allows teachers to develop close and long-term relationships with their students and know each child’s learning style well. The multiage structure encourages older students to become role-models, mentors, and leaders to younger students.||Same age grouping.|
|Children are encouraged to help, work with, and teach each other.||Most teaching is done by the teacher; collaboration is limited and controlled by the teacher.|
|Hands-on, multisensory, self-correcting materials to support self-directed learning. Through trial and error, children use their five senses to discover concepts through meaningful experiences with actual objects. Leads to children being engaged rather than passive with their work.||Textbooks, pencil and paper, and worksheets. Developmentally, young children are not yet able to fully benefit from abstract paperwork.|
|Integrated subjects.||Subjects taught separately.|
|Learning based on stages aligned with developmental psychology.||Learning based on chronological age.|
|Process is more important than product.
Repeated use of materials is encouraged to develop investigative skills.
|Product is more important than process. Memorization and correct answers are stressed.|
|Discipline is designed to develop children who are self-correcting.
||Discipline is designed to control the behavior of children.